Dear EarthTalk: How many of our rainforests are protected around the world?
—Adriano Adamson Paiva, Bahia, Brazil
Determining how much rainforest land is protected worldwide depends on how you define "rainforest." Researchers at the Worldwatch Institute in Washington, DC have identified three different types of rainforests. There are about 4.2 million square miles of tropical moist forest, of which just eight percent is protected, and 76,000 square miles of tropical mangrove forest, of which only nine percent is protected. And only five percent of the 300,000 square miles of the third type, tropical dry forest, is protected. And many of these forests are protected only on paper; in practice, they may not necessarily be safe from oil drilling, wood harvesting, cattle grazing and myriad other destructive uses.
Scientists and policymakers at the Switzerland-based World Conservation Union (IUCN) estimate that there are 44,000 "protected areas" worldwide, covering over 13 million square kilometers—an area equivalent to the landmass of India and China combined. These areas, which include rainforests but which can also be agricultural lands, national parks, reserves, forested land, marine sanctuaries and more, cover about 10 percent of the Earth’s surface.
While the IUCN has documented more than 1,388 words or terms used to describe a "protected area," national park designation remains a common way to secure the future existence of a natural resource like a rainforest. Tumucumaque National Park in the Brazilian Amazon is the world’s largest protected tropical rainforest, covering 24,135 square kilometers.
CONTACTS: The World Conservation Union, +41 (22) 999-0001; www.iucn.org; Worldwatch Institute, (202) 452-1999, www.worldwatch.org; Rainforest Alliance, www.rainforest-alliance.org; Rainforest Action Network, (415) 398-4404, www.ran.org.
EARTH TALKFrom the Editors of E/The Environmental Magazine
Dear EarthTalk: I have been searching for an environmentally friendly way to repel moles from my home without killing or harming them. Any suggestions?
—Elizabeth Powell, Marion, OH
Having moles in your yard is not necessarily detrimental. According to Bill Adler, author of Outwitting Critters: A Humane Guide for Confronting Devious Animals and Winning, moles eat destructive creatures like Japanese beetles and grubs, and aerate the soil by tunneling, thus bringing subsoil close to the surface. Moles themselves do not eat plant matter. Most likely, plant damage is done by the vegetarian vole, or by mice.
However, mole-tunneling activity can cause significant cosmetic damage to a well-manicured lawn. There are some mole-friendly ways to urge them to take their digging elsewhere. Gardens Alive! makes an eco-friendly spray called Mole-Gopher Med Repellent. Made from castor oil that you apply directly into mole holes about once every two months, the product releases a harmless smell that annoys moles, encouraging them to leave. One-pint bottles are good for a 5,000-square-foot application ($17).
Critter-Repellent.com offers Shake Away, a 100-percent natural pellet treated with a mixture of bobcat, coyote and fox urine that will also deter rodents from your yard: $15 for a 20-ounce bottle.
A physical barrier to try: Surround a cherished garden with an underground barrier of compacted soil and stones about one foot wide and two feet deep. A one-foot-high fence will prevent the moles from walking over the barrier.